Professor Colin Renfrew, Baron Renfrew of Kaimsthorn, Ph.D., FBA, FSA, HonFSAScot is a prominent British archaeologist and highly regarded academic, noted for his work on radiocarbon dating, the prehistory of languages, archaeogenetics, and the prevention of looting at archaeological sites.
In this study we shall focus on one of the most controversial problems of the development of Quaternary palaeoenvironment, as well as of archaeology and geoarchaeology in the Carpathian Basin, namely the appearance, settlement and expansion of Early Neolithic population groups and the reconstruction of the process of neolithization. Our basic goal is to present a model which, in contrast to previous archaeological and palaeoenvironmental models, incorporates to a much greater extent the palaeoenvironmental characteristics of the Carpathian Basin and the interrelation between Neolithic knowledge, technology and environment.
The cemetery at Saqqara is one of the most important archaeological sites in Egypt. Over six kilometres long, it boasts thousands of underground burial sites, as well as the six-step Djoser pyramid - Egypt's oldest pyramid. The ruins at Saqqara have long attracted the interest of explorers, grave-robbers and local people. Travellers first reported evidence of antiquities at Saqqara in the 16th century. The Djoser Pyramid and the smaller pyramids around it were hard to miss - but the size of the necropolis only became apparent with the advent of excavations in the 19th century.
For a time, about 2,700 years ago, the ancient city of Nineveh ruled the Middle East. Today, it is among the world's most endangered archaeological sites, in need of an urgent rescue plan. After 2,700 years, the walls and gates of ancient Nineveh can still be seen near the banks of the Tigris river just opposite the modern city of Mosul in Iraq. In ancient times, it was the capital of the great Assyrian empire, a city of more than 100,000 people, and it was a subject of a supreme being's attention throughout the books of the Old and New Testaments in the biblical account.
An archaeological dig in İzmir’s Yeşilova district has revealed fingerprints dating back to the Neolithic age close to nine millennia ago. No other place in the area has such a long history of human settlement, a scholar says. Researchers conducting excavations in Yeşilova Höyüğü, the oldest known area of human settlement in İzmir, have announced the discovery of fingerprints belonging to former residents of the area that are more than eight millennia old.
In 1925, archaeologist Leonard Woolley discovered a curious collection of artifacts while excavating a Babylonian palace. They were from many different times and places, and yet they were neatly organized and even labeled. Woolley had discovered the world's first museum.
Has the lost army of Cambyses II been found? The Persian army of 50,000 soldiers supposedly perished in a sandstorm in ancient Egypt 2500 years ago. Researchers have located a valley of bones they think may belong to the fabled army.
Discovered in the ruins of the ancient city of Ipu, this wooden coffin holds the mummified body of Taosir, daughter of Nesmin and Taamun, priestess of Osiris in Ipu around 600 BC. The intensity of the colors, the exuberance of the decoration, the precision of the stroke, and the crispness of its complete hieroglyphic text are a moving record of Egyptian life twenty six centuries ago. So is the mummy itself, with its gentle features concealed beneath untouched linen wraps and gold leafed cartonnage trappings.
Wine is a beverage that belongs to the Mediterranean culture.The oldest and most extensive documentation about viticulture and winemaking comes from Egypt. Vineyards have been grown in the Nile Delta for five thousand years. The historical and archaeological study of documents and paintings related to winemaking coming from walls of Egyptian tombs, still presents nowadays unknown aspects. Thanks to the development of analytical techniques, we are now able to shed light on a new aspect known to us from the first Mediterranean civilization: the wine culture in Egypt.
A true classic. This sweeping historical account of ancient Parthia details the history, ethnography, government, and culture of an empire that was ancient Rome's most formidable obstacle to eastward expansion. Aided by a wealth of maps and illustrations, Rawlinson documents the ebb and flow of empire, providing vivid accounts of the Parthians' battles with Rome and a window into a civilization that lasted five centuries.
The Saudi Commission for Tourism and Antiquities (SCTA) announced Sunday that Saudi archaeologists have discovered an ancient hieroglyphic inscription mentioning an Egyptian pharaoh on a rock near the ancient oasis of Tayma, Tabuk province. The discovery, about 400 km north of Madinah and northeast of the ancient Nabatean site Madain Saleh, marks the first confirmed hieroglyphic inscription discovered in the Kingdom.
In recent years attempts have been made to cast a new look at ancient India. For too long the picture has been distorted by myopic colonial readings of India’s prehistory and early history, and more recently by ill-suited Marxist models. One such distortion was the Aryan invasion theory, now definitively on its way out, although its watered-down avatars are still struggling to survive. It will no doubt take some more time—and much more effort on the archaeological front—for a new perspective of the earliest civilization in the North of the subcontinent to take firm shape, but a beginning has been made.
Geologiske og arkeologiske undersøkelser av egnene omkring Svartehavet har vist, at dette hav har hatt en noe omtumlet tilværelse i fortiden. I de første årtusen etter siste istids avslutning dekket det således et langt mindre areal, enn det som er tilfellet i dag. Svartehavet var den gang en isolert ferskvannssjø uten forbindelse med Middelhavet.
This dissertation investigates the appliqued serpent imagery found on pottery vessels in Mesopotamia and surrounding areas from approximately 3100 BC to the mid-second millennium BC. Chapter One presents the widely varying patterns of serpent imagery in different cultures. The zoological and biological characteristics of snakes are considered relevant to their ubiquity in the art of the world.
An Iraqi excavation team has uncovered a grave with magnificent finds dating to the Parthian period. The grave's artifacts have astonished scientists for their beauty and magnificence. The finds are at least about 2000 years old and the new grave is the largest to be excavated from the same period in Iraq.
More than two millenia back in the steppes of central Asia Scythians left after themselves no cities, no palaces, but barrows, in which they buried their dead together with their property. Who were the Scythians - barbarians or the masters of gold? What secrets will be revealed by the scientists who unearth the graves of the Scythians?
The paper focuses on animal style images and compositions in Pazyryk art. An attempt is made to reconstruct the semantics of certain images, proceeding from the assumption that art is a special language used to express perceptions of the Universe. The mythical griffin is the most popular figure in Pazyryk art, suggesting that the Pazyryk people may be identified with the "griffins guarding gold," mentioned by Aristeas and Herodotus. The griffin image is interpreted in the context of Pazyryk ritual grave goods and specifically in griffon - horse predatory scenes represented in the attire of the sacrificial horses that accompanied the deceased to their tombs.
The article addresses models of carts found at Altyn-Depe – a key Chalcolithic and Bronze Age settlement in Western Central Asia, dating to the late 4th – early 3rd millennia BC. This is the earliest evidence of wheeled transport in the region, providing information on the type and construction of carts used by the early agriculturalists of the Middle East. The models represent two-wheeled carts with shafts that were apparently linked to a yoke. Judging by representations of the harness, bulls (possibly oxen) were the only draft animals. In the second half of the 3rd millennium BC, fourwheeled carts appeared at Altyn-Depe.
The Caucasus and Anatolia, the eastern and southern parts of the common Circumpontic zone, i.e. territories around the Black Sea, were and are important as «bridges» connecting the Near East and Europe. This has determinated the common nature of the distinguishing features of the development of both above regions. Their historical, cultural, social and economical development is characterized by their intermediate position in Near Eastern and European evolutional models.
Austrian archaeologists have found a Babylonian seal in Egypt that confirms contact between the Babylonians and the Hyksos during the second millennium B.C. She said a recently-discovered cuneiform tablet had led archaeologists to suspect there had been contact between the Babylonians and the Hyksos. Forstner-Müller added that Manfred Bietak had begun archaeological research on the period of Hyksos dominance at the remains of a Hyksos palace at Avaris in 1966.
This volume deals with the myths and legends of Babylonia and Assyria, and as these reflect the civilization in which they developed, a historical narrative has been provided, beginning with the early Sumerian Age and concluding with the periods of ...
Semitic studies, both linguistically and archæologically, have advanced by rapid strides during the last two decades. Fresh light has fallen upon the literary, scientific, theological, mercantile, and other achievements of this great branch of the human family.
When the great Empire of the Persians, founded by Cyrus, collapsed under the attack of Alexander the Great, the dominant race of Western Asia did not feel itself at the first reduced to an intolerable condition. It was the benevolent design of Alexander to fuse into one the two leading peoples of Europe and Asia, and to establish himself at the head of a Perso-Hellenic State, the capital of which was to have been Babylon.
Persia Proper seems to have corresponded nearly to that province of the modern Iran, which still bears the ancient name slightly modified, being called Farsistan or Fars. The chief important difference between the two is, that whereas in modern times the tract called Herman is regarded as a distinct and separate region, Carmania anciently was included within the limits of Persia.
The limits of Babylonia Proper, the tract in which the dominant power of the Fourth Monarchy had its abode, being almost identical with those which have been already described under the head of Chaldaea, will not require in this place to be treated afresh, at any length. It needs only to remind the reader that Babylonia Proper is that alluvial tract towards the mouth of the two great rivers of Western Asia—the Tigris and the Euphrates—which intervenes between the Arabian Desert on the one side, and the more eastern of the two streams on the other.
The Parthians do not appear in history until a comparatively recent period. Their name occurs nowhere in the Old Testament Scriptures. They obtain no mention in the Zendavesta. The Assyrian Inscriptions are wholly silent concerning them.
Herodotus considered the whole of Babylonia to be a mere district of Assyria. Pliny reckoned to it all Mesopotamia. Strabo gave it, besides these regions, a great portion of Mount Zagros (the modern Kurdistan), and all Syria as far as Cilicia, Judaea, and Phoenicia.
The division, which has here forced itself upon our notice, between the Upper and the Lower Mesopotamian country, is one very necessary to engage our attention in connection with the ancient Chaldaea. There is no reason to think that the terns Chaldaea had at anytime the extensive signification of Mesopotamia, much less that it applied to the entire flat country between the desert and the mountains.
All nations, unless they be colonies, have a prehistoric time-a dark period of mist and gloom, before the keen light of history dawns upon them. This period is the favourite playground of the myth-spirits, where they disport themselves freely, or lounge h
Le fait dominant des cinquante dernières années, dans l'ordre scientifique, a été certainement la rénovation des études de l'histoire et surtout la conquête du vieux passé de l'Orient par la critique moderne, armée du flambeau qui fait pénétrer la lumière jusque dans les plus obscurs replis de ces annales pendant si longtemps ensevelies dans l'oubli.
At no period have excavations been pursued with more energy and activity, both in Egypt and Western Asia, than at the present time, and every season's work obliges us to modify former theories, and extends our knowledge of periods of history which even ten years ago were unknown to the historian.
Archeological science has long ago established that the successor of the pit culture in South-Russian steppes was the so-called frame culture, which has got its name from the wooden frame under the mould-burial. In the steppes of Middle Asia and Minusinsk hollow, the Afanasiev variety of pit culture was replaced by the so-called Andronov culture, ethnically close to it.
Hun-Bulgarian tribes were the successors of Scythians by all the culture and consanguinity indications. The basic ethnic reference, the burial rite of Scythians and Huns, was strikingly uniform: the same barrows, burial frames of logs and thick timbers, burial blocks, sacrificial horses etc.
Mesopotamia is the oldest civilisation to have flourished at the confluence of two rivers: the Tigris and the Euphrates. The Mesopotamians included various peoples, the Sumerians, the Babylonians, the Akkadians, who coexisted and succeeded one another, mixing and inter-relating in a Near East with a wide range of racial facets.
Sarasvati Sindhu civilization is one tip of the triangle linking with the central Asian and Mesopotamian cultural areas.
Western scholars were not the first to decipher the ancient language of the pharaohs, according to a new book that will be published later this year by a UCL researcher.
For decades, school children have learned that human civilization emerged about 5000 years ago along the Euphrates River in Mesopotamia, along the Nile, and along the Indus River.
We present in this fascicle a brief preliminary report on the sixth season of excavations at Tell Mozan, in which pride of place is given to the single most important find of that season - two cuneiform tablets of the latter part of the third millennium. As the second in our sequence of official excavation reports, this monograph deals first with the broader background of the sixth season as a whole; it also takes up is some detail the issue of the general archaeological and specific stratigraphic context in which the tablets are situated.
About the time when the Roman Empire was collapsing, the northwestern and western parts of India were under the control of Scythic empires. Indeed, many of the tribes active in the disturbances following the fall of Rome appear as rulers in western India.
When we give consideration to a matter of trade routes in these periods outlined below, the perception of the spatial distribution, by phase, of Khabur ware outside its main distribution zone, in addition to historical consideration, seems significant.
Paktra; the classical writers named it Bactria, and after the conquests of Islam it has come to be called Balkh; a northern province of modern Afghanistan, which boarders to the north, the river Oxus and the former USSR. Much of the work on excavations of Bactrian artifacts has been done by French Archaeologists. Historians find remote references in other people's records about the kingdom.
The powerful Akkad dynasty, which put an end to the Sumerian city-states of Mesopotamia about 1270 B.C., extended its rule over western Iran also, especially over the south-west: Elam, with its capital city of Susa. Susa may have been a trading centre for some of the raw materials from Iran needed in Mesopotamia.
Medes and Persians appear in history in the latter part of the ninth century B.C. That is, their names are mentioned from that time onward in the military and administrative records of the Assyrian kings who campaigned in western Iran in order to safeguard the eastern frontiers of their empire and to keep open the roads on which trade and tribute brought horses, timber and metal from Iran to Assyria.
Domination of Iran and Mesopotamia was wrested from the Seleucids by the Parthians, a people said to have been originally a Scythian tribe but who obtained the name by which they are known in world history from the eastern Iranian province of Parthava.
Study of the origins and dispersals of and continuity and discontinuity among Proto-Indo-European peoples has engaged a number of scholars over a hundred and fifty years. Two major methods used in the study are: archaeology and language.
In or about the year before Christ 606, Nineveh, the great city, was destroyed. For many hundred years had she stood in arrogant splendor, her palaces towering above the Tigris and mirrored in its swift waters; army after army had gone forth from her gates and returned laden with the spoils of conquered countries.
Die meisten Hügel in Tuva weisen seltsame Trichter auf, denn seit über 2.000 Jahren machen Grabräuber Jagd auf ihren Inhalt. Sie haben es auf das sagenhafte Gold der Skythen abgesehen, über das schon Herodot schrieb. Mit den Grabbeigaben verschwand auch das Wissen über das Reitervolk der Skythen.
Deutsche Archäologie in der sibirische Steppe wird heute überwiegend durch das Deutsche Archäologische Institut betrieben.
Im Grabungshaus, einer alten Sargfabrik, beraten Parzinger und Nagler das weitere Vorgehen. Sie wollen die Grabung zügig abschließen, bevor die Nachricht vom neuerlichen Goldfund die Runde macht. Zumal sie im Südostsektor auf eine weitere verheißungsvolle Stelle gestoßen sind.
Russian scholars from the State Hermitage Museum have concluded that a discovery of Scythian gold in a Siberian grave last summer is the earliest of its kind ever found and that it predates Greek influence. The find is leading to a change in how scholars view the supposed barbaric, nomadic tribes that once roamed the Eurasian steppes.