Ancient history - Ókor, őstörténet Scythia - Szkítia Pyramids - Piramisok Sumerian clay tablet - Sumér agyagtábla Sumerians - Sumérok Assyria - Asszíria Ancient Egypt - Ókori Egyiptom Egyptian hieroglyphs - Egyiptomi hieroglifa Scythian treasure - Szkíta kincsek Sarmatian - Szarmata
anatolia, archeology, assyria, avar, babylon, caucasus, chaldea, egypt, etruscan, finnugor, genetics, hun, indo-european, kelta, linguistics, magyar, media, mitanni, nyelveszet, parthia, persia, regeszet, scythia, subartu, sumer, szabir, szkita, urartu, video,

Linkek / Links

Könyvek / Books

Egyéb / Misc


Islamic State 'demolishes' ancient Hatra site in Iraq

BBC News

Islamic State militants have destroyed ruins at the ancient city of Hatra, Iraqi officials say.

Nimrud: Outcry as IS bulldozers attack ancient Iraq site

BBC News

Archaeologists and officials have expressed outrage about the bulldozing of the ancient Assyrian city of Nimrud by Islamic State militants in Iraq.

Ancient Mysteries Revealed in Turkmen Desert Sands

Igor Sasin

Over four millennia ago, the fortress town of Gonur-Tepe might have been a rare advanced civilisation before it was buried for centuries under the dust of the Kara Kum desert in remote western Turkmenistan. After being uncovered by Soviet archaeologists in the last century, Gonur-Tepe, once home to thousands of people and the centre of a thriving region, is gradually revealing its mysteries with new artifacts being uncovered on every summer dig.

Saka Princess Tomb Found in Kazakhstan

Archeology News Network

The burial site of the high-ranking young woman was discovered during reconstruction of Taskesken-Bakty road in Urdzhar region of East-Kazakhstan oblast. An expedition made of professors and students of Semipalatinsk and Pavlodar pedagogical institutes discovered the stone tomb-chest with remains of the young woman at the depth of 1.7 meters under a burial mound.

6,000-Year-Old Wine Discovered in Eastern Macedonia

Archeology News Network

In the prehistoric settlement of Dikili Tash were discovered the oldest samples of wine that were ever recorded in Europe. The samples date back to 4200 BC and reverse existing data regarding the way of living during the Neolithic period.

Prof. Colin Renfrew on the Sevso Treasure


Professor Colin Renfrew, Baron Renfrew of Kaimsthorn, Ph.D., FBA, FSA, HonFSAScot is a prominent British archaeologist and highly regarded academic, noted for his work on radiocarbon dating, the prehistory of languages, archaeogenetics, and the prevention of looting at archaeological sites.

Why Did Expansion of the Körös–Starcevo Culture Stop in the Centre of the Carpathian Basin?

Róbert Kertész, Pál Sümegi

In this study we shall focus on one of the most controversial problems of the development of Quaternary palaeoenvironment, as well as of archaeology and geoarchaeology in the Carpathian Basin, namely the appearance, settlement and expansion of Early Neolithic population groups and the reconstruction of the process of neolithization. Our basic goal is to present a model which, in contrast to previous archaeological and palaeoenvironmental models, incorporates to a much greater extent the palaeoenvironmental characteristics of the Carpathian Basin and the interrelation between Neolithic knowledge, technology and environment.

A History of Archaeology and Excavation at Saqqara

Jonathan Yeomans

The cemetery at Saqqara is one of the most important archaeological sites in Egypt. Over six kilometres long, it boasts thousands of underground burial sites, as well as the six-step Djoser pyramid - Egypt's oldest pyramid. The ruins at Saqqara have long attracted the interest of explorers, grave-robbers and local people. Travellers first reported evidence of antiquities at Saqqara in the 16th century. The Djoser Pyramid and the smaller pyramids around it were hard to miss - but the size of the necropolis only became apparent with the advent of excavations in the 19th century.

Saving Ancient Nineveh

Archaeology Daily

For a time, about 2,700 years ago, the ancient city of Nineveh ruled the Middle East. Today, it is among the world's most endangered archaeological sites, in need of an urgent rescue plan. After 2,700 years, the walls and gates of ancient Nineveh can still be seen near the banks of the Tigris river just opposite the modern city of Mosul in Iraq. In ancient times, it was the capital of the great Assyrian empire, a city of more than 100,000 people, and it was a subject of a supreme being's attention throughout the books of the Old and New Testaments in the biblical account.

8,500-Year-Old Fingerprints Unearthed in Turkey

Anatolia News Agency

An archaeological dig in İzmir’s Yeşilova district has revealed fingerprints dating back to the Neolithic age close to nine millennia ago. No other place in the area has such a long history of human settlement, a scholar says. Researchers conducting excavations in Yeşilova Höyüğü, the oldest known area of human settlement in İzmir, have announced the discovery of fingerprints belonging to former residents of the area that are more than eight millennia old.

The World’s Oldest Museum

Alasdair Wilkins

In 1925, archaeologist Leonard Woolley discovered a curious collection of artifacts while excavating a Babylonian palace. They were from many different times and places, and yet they were neatly organized and even labeled. Woolley had discovered the world's first museum.

Ancient Lost Army Found?

Discovery News

Has the lost army of Cambyses II been found? The Persian army of 50,000 soldiers supposedly perished in a sandstorm in ancient Egypt 2500 years ago. Researchers have located a valley of bones they think may belong to the fabled army.

Sarcophagus and mummy of Taosir

Virtual Egyptian Museum

Discovered in the ruins of the ancient city of Ipu, this wooden coffin holds the mummified body of Taosir, daughter of Nesmin and Taamun, priestess of Osiris in Ipu around 600 BC. The intensity of the colors, the exuberance of the decoration, the precision of the stroke, and the crispness of its complete hieroglyphic text are a moving record of Egyptian life twenty six centuries ago. So is the mummy itself, with its gentle features concealed beneath untouched linen wraps and gold leafed cartonnage trappings.

Wine In Ancient Egypt

Maria Rosa Guasch i Jané

Wine is a beverage that belongs to the Mediterranean culture.The oldest and most extensive documentation about viticulture and winemaking comes from Egypt. Vineyards have been grown in the Nile Delta for five thousand years. The historical and archaeological study of documents and paintings related to winemaking coming from walls of Egyptian tombs, still presents nowadays unknown aspects. Thanks to the development of analytical techniques, we are now able to shed light on a new aspect known to us from the first Mediterranean civilization: the wine culture in Egypt.


George Rawlinson

A true classic. This sweeping historical account of ancient Parthia details the history, ethnography, government, and culture of an empire that was ancient Rome's most formidable obstacle to eastward expansion. Aided by a wealth of maps and illustrations, Rawlinson documents the ebb and flow of empire, providing vivid accounts of the Parthians' battles with Rome and a window into a civilization that lasted five centuries.

Pharaonic inscription found in Saudi Arabia

Rodolfo C. Estimo Jr.

The Saudi Commission for Tourism and Antiquities (SCTA) announced Sunday that Saudi archaeologists have discovered an ancient hieroglyphic inscription mentioning an Egyptian pharaoh on a rock near the ancient oasis of Tayma, Tabuk province. The discovery, about 400 km north of Madinah and northeast of the ancient Nabatean site Madain Saleh, marks the first confirmed hieroglyphic inscription discovered in the Kingdom.

Vedic Roots of Early Tamil Culture

Michel Danino

In recent years attempts have been made to cast a new look at ancient India. For too long the picture has been distorted by myopic colonial readings of India’s prehistory and early history, and more recently by ill-suited Marxist models. One such distortion was the Aryan invasion theory, now definitively on its way out, although its watered-down avatars are still struggling to survive. It will no doubt take some more time—and much more effort on the archaeological front—for a new perspective of the earliest civilization in the North of the subcontinent to take firm shape, but a beginning has been made.

Den store floden


Geologiske og arkeologiske undersøkelser av egnene omkring Svartehavet har vist, at dette hav har hatt en noe omtumlet tilværelse i fortiden. I de første årtusen etter siste istids avslutning dekket det således et langt mindre areal, enn det som er tilfellet i dag. Svartehavet var den gang en isolert ferskvannssjø uten forbindelse med Middelhavet.

Serpent Imagery On Ancient Near Eastern Pottery

Diana Krumholz McDonald

This dissertation investigates the appliqued serpent imagery found on pottery vessels in Mesopotamia and surrounding areas from approximately 3100 BC to the mid-second millennium BC. Chapter One presents the widely varying patterns of serpent imagery in different cultures. The zoological and biological characteristics of snakes are considered relevant to their ubiquity in the art of the world.

Parthian grave with astounding artifacts found in Iraq

Mohened Ali

An Iraqi excavation team has uncovered a grave with magnificent finds dating to the Parthian period. The grave's artifacts have astonished scientists for their beauty and magnificence. The finds are at least about 2000 years old and the new grave is the largest to be excavated from the same period in Iraq.

Гробница алтайского скифа (The Tomb of the Scythian Prince)

More than two millenia back in the steppes of central Asia Scythians left after themselves no cities, no palaces, but barrows, in which they buried their dead together with their property. Who were the Scythians - barbarians or the masters of gold? What secrets will be revealed by the scientists who unearth the graves of the Scythians?

On The Semantics Of Animal Style Ornithomorphic Images In Pazyryk Ritual Artifacts

D.V. Cheremisin

The paper focuses on animal style images and compositions in Pazyryk art. An attempt is made to reconstruct the semantics of certain images, proceeding from the assumption that art is a special language used to express perceptions of the Universe. The mythical griffin is the most popular figure in Pazyryk art, suggesting that the Pazyryk people may be identified with the "griffins guarding gold," mentioned by Aristeas and Herodotus. The griffin image is interpreted in the context of Pazyryk ritual grave goods and specifically in griffon - horse predatory scenes represented in the attire of the sacrificial horses that accompanied the deceased to their tombs.

The Earliest Wheeled Transport In Southwestern Central Asia

L.B. Kirtcho

The article addresses models of carts found at Altyn-Depe – a key Chalcolithic and Bronze Age settlement in Western Central Asia, dating to the late 4th – early 3rd millennia BC. This is the earliest evidence of wheeled transport in the region, providing information on the type and construction of carts used by the early agriculturalists of the Middle East. The models represent two-wheeled carts with shafts that were apparently linked to a yoke. Judging by representations of the harness, bulls (possibly oxen) were the only draft animals. In the second half of the 3rd millennium BC, fourwheeled carts appeared at Altyn-Depe.

Caucasian and Anatolian Bronze Age Cultures

Giorgi Leon Kavtaradze

The Caucasus and Anatolia, the eastern and southern parts of the common Circumpontic zone, i.e. territories around the Black Sea, were and are important as «bridges» connecting the Near East and Europe. This has determinated the common nature of the distinguishing features of the development of both above regions. Their historical, cultural, social and economical development is characterized by their intermediate position in Near Eastern and European evolutional models.

Babylonian seal in Egypt confirms contact

Lisa Chapman

Austrian archaeologists have found a Babylonian seal in Egypt that confirms contact between the Babylonians and the Hyksos during the second millennium B.C. She said a recently-discovered cuneiform tablet had led archaeologists to suspect there had been contact between the Babylonians and the Hyksos. Forstner-Müller added that Manfred Bietak had begun archaeological research on the period of Hyksos dominance at the remains of a Hyksos palace at Avaris in 1966.

Myths of Babylonia and Assyria

Donald A. Mackenzie

This volume deals with the myths and legends of Babylonia and Assyria, and as these reflect the civilization in which they developed, a historical narrative has been provided, beginning with the early Sumerian Age and concluding with the periods of ...

Babylonians And Assyrians

A. H. Sayce

Semitic studies, both linguistically and archæologically, have advanced by rapid strides during the last two decades. Fresh light has fallen upon the literary, scientific, theological, mercantile, and other achievements of this great branch of the human family.

The Seven Great Monarchies: New Persian Empire

George Rawlinson

When the great Empire of the Persians, founded by Cyrus, collapsed under the attack of Alexander the Great, the dominant race of Western Asia did not feel itself at the first reduced to an intolerable condition. It was the benevolent design of Alexander to fuse into one the two leading peoples of Europe and Asia, and to establish himself at the head of a Perso-Hellenic State, the capital of which was to have been Babylon.

The Seven Great Monarchies: Persia

George Rawlinson

Persia Proper seems to have corresponded nearly to that province of the modern Iran, which still bears the ancient name slightly modified, being called Farsistan or Fars. The chief important difference between the two is, that whereas in modern times the tract called Herman is regarded as a distinct and separate region, Carmania anciently was included within the limits of Persia.

The Seven Great Monarchies: Babylon

George Rawlinson

The limits of Babylonia Proper, the tract in which the dominant power of the Fourth Monarchy had its abode, being almost identical with those which have been already described under the head of Chaldaea, will not require in this place to be treated afresh, at any length. It needs only to remind the reader that Babylonia Proper is that alluvial tract towards the mouth of the two great rivers of Western Asia—the Tigris and the Euphrates—which intervenes between the Arabian Desert on the one side, and the more eastern of the two streams on the other.

The Seven Great Monarchies: Parthia

George Rawlinson

The Parthians do not appear in history until a comparatively recent period. Their name occurs nowhere in the Old Testament Scriptures. They obtain no mention in the Zendavesta. The Assyrian Inscriptions are wholly silent concerning them.

The Seven Great Monarchies: Assyria

George Rawlinson

Herodotus considered the whole of Babylonia to be a mere district of Assyria. Pliny reckoned to it all Mesopotamia. Strabo gave it, besides these regions, a great portion of Mount Zagros (the modern Kurdistan), and all Syria as far as Cilicia, Judaea, and Phoenicia.

The Seven Great Monarchies: Chaldaea

George Rawlinson

The division, which has here forced itself upon our notice, between the Upper and the Lower Mesopotamian country, is one very necessary to engage our attention in connection with the ancient Chaldaea. There is no reason to think that the terns Chaldaea had at anytime the extensive signification of Mesopotamia, much less that it applied to the entire flat country between the desert and the mountains.

Ancient Egypt

George Rawlinson

All nations, unless they be colonies, have a prehistoric time-a dark period of mist and gloom, before the keen light of history dawns upon them. This period is the favourite playground of the myth-spirits, where they disport themselves freely, or lounge h

Histoire ancienne de l'orient

François Lenormant

Le fait dominant des cinquante dernières années, dans l'ordre scientifique, a été certainement la rénovation des études de l'histoire et surtout la conquête du vieux passé de l'Orient par la critique moderne, armée du flambeau qui fait pénétrer la lumière jusque dans les plus obscurs replis de ces annales pendant si longtemps ensevelies dans l'oubli.

History Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria

L.W. King, H.R. Hall

At no period have excavations been pursued with more energy and activity, both in Egypt and Western Asia, than at the present time, and every season's work obliges us to modify former theories, and extends our knowledge of periods of history which even ten years ago were unknown to the historian.

Scythian-Sarmat Ancestors of Balkarians and Karachais

I. M. Miziyev

Archeological science has long ago established that the successor of the pit culture in South-Russian steppes was the so-called frame culture, which has got its name from the wooden frame under the mould-burial. In the steppes of Middle Asia and Minusinsk hollow, the Afanasiev variety of pit culture was replaced by the so-called Andronov culture, ethnically close to it.

The Hun-Bulgarian Stage of the Formation of Balkarians And Karachais

I. M. Miziyev

Hun-Bulgarian tribes were the successors of Scythians by all the culture and consanguinity indications. The basic ethnic reference, the burial rite of Scythians and Huns, was strikingly uniform: the same barrows, burial frames of logs and thick timbers, burial blocks, sacrificial horses etc.

Civilisations: The Gardens of Babel


Mesopotamia is the oldest civilisation to have flourished at the confluence of two rivers: the Tigris and the Euphrates. The Mesopotamians included various peoples, the Sumerians, the Babylonians, the Akkadians, who coexisted and succeeded one another, mixing and inter-relating in a Near East with a wide range of racial facets.

Central Asia, Mesopotamia and Sarasvati Sindhu civilization

Sarasvati Sindhu civilization is one tip of the triangle linking with the central Asian and Mesopotamian cultural areas.

Hieroglyphics Cracked 1,000 Years Earlier Than Thought

Western scholars were not the first to decipher the ancient language of the pharaohs, according to a new book that will be published later this year by a UCL researcher.

Beyond Mesopotamia: A New View Of The Dawn Of Civilization

For decades, school children have learned that human civilization emerged about 5000 years ago along the Euphrates River in Mesopotamia, along the Nile, and along the Indus River.

Tell Mozan - The Epigraphic Finds of the Sixth Season

Lucio Milano

We present in this fascicle a brief preliminary report on the sixth season of excavations at Tell Mozan, in which pride of place is given to the single most important find of that season - two cuneiform tablets of the latter part of the third millennium. As the second in our sequence of official excavation reports, this monograph deals first with the broader background of the sixth season as a whole; it also takes up is some detail the issue of the general archaeological and specific stratigraphic context in which the tablets are situated.

Scythic Origin of the Rajput Race

Mulchand Chauhan

About the time when the Roman Empire was collapsing, the northwestern and western parts of India were under the control of Scythic empires. Indeed, many of the tribes active in the disturbances following the fall of Rome appear as rulers in western India.

Trade Routes in the Old Assyrian Period

Hiromichi Oguchi

When we give consideration to a matter of trade routes in these periods outlined below, the perception of the spatial distribution, by phase, of Khabur ware outside its main distribution zone, in addition to historical consideration, seems significant.

The ancient Balkh

Rameen Javid Moshref

Paktra; the classical writers named it Bactria, and after the conquests of Islam it has come to be called Balkh; a northern province of modern Afghanistan, which boarders to the north, the river Oxus and the former USSR. Much of the work on excavations of Bactrian artifacts has been done by French Archaeologists. Historians find remote references in other people's records about the kingdom.

The Art of the Akkad and Post-Akkad Periods in Western Iran

Edith Porada

The powerful Akkad dynasty, which put an end to the Sumerian city-states of Mesopotamia about 1270 B.C., extended its rule over western Iran also, especially over the south-west: Elam, with its capital city of Susa. Susa may have been a trading centre for some of the raw materials from Iran needed in Mesopotamia.

The Art of the Medes

Edith Porada

Medes and Persians appear in history in the latter part of the ninth century B.C. That is, their names are mentioned from that time onward in the military and administrative records of the Assyrian kings who campaigned in western Iran in order to safeguard the eastern frontiers of their empire and to keep open the roads on which trade and tribute brought horses, timber and metal from Iran to Assyria.

The Art of the Parthians

Edith Porada

Domination of Iran and Mesopotamia was wrested from the Seleucids by the Parthians, a people said to have been originally a Scythian tribe but who obtained the name by which they are known in world history from the eastern Iranian province of Parthava.

Proto-Indoaryans, Mitanni, Hurrians

Study of the origins and dispersals of and continuity and discontinuity among Proto-Indo-European peoples has engaged a number of scholars over a hundred and fifty years. Two major methods used in the study are: archaeology and language.


Zénaïde A. Ragozin

In or about the year before Christ 606, Nineveh, the great city, was destroyed. For many hundred years had she stood in arrogant splendor, her palaces towering above the Tigris and mirrored in its swift waters; army after army had gone forth from her gates and returned laden with the spoils of conquered countries.

Der Jahrhundert-Fund

Die meisten Hügel in Tuva weisen seltsame Trichter auf, denn seit über 2.000 Jahren machen Grabräuber Jagd auf ihren Inhalt. Sie haben es auf das sagenhafte Gold der Skythen abgesehen, über das schon Herodot schrieb. Mit den Grabbeigaben verschwand auch das Wissen über das Reitervolk der Skythen.

Das skythische Fürstengrab von Aržan

Prof. Dr. Hermann Parzinger

Deutsche Archäologie in der sibirische Steppe wird heute überwiegend durch das Deutsche Archäologische Institut betrieben.

Überraschungen am Kurgan

Im Grabungshaus, einer alten Sargfabrik, beraten Parzinger und Nagler das weitere Vorgehen. Sie wollen die Grabung zügig abschließen, bevor die Nachricht vom neuerlichen Goldfund die Runde macht. Zumal sie im Südostsektor auf eine weitere verheißungsvolle Stelle gestoßen sind.

Scythian Gold From Siberia Said to Predate the Greeks

The New York Times

Russian scholars from the State Hermitage Museum have concluded that a discovery of Scythian gold in a Siberian grave last summer is the earliest of its kind ever found and that it predates Greek influence. The find is leading to a change in how scholars view the supposed barbaric, nomadic tribes that once roamed the Eurasian steppes.

Archívum / Archive

anatolia, archeology, assyria, avar, babylon, caucasus, chaldea, egypt, etruscan, finnugor, genetics, hun, indo-european, kelta, linguistics, magyar, media, mitanni, nyelveszet, parthia, persia, regeszet, scythia, subartu, sumer, szabir, szkita, urartu, video,