Ancient history - Ókor, őstörténet Scythia - Szkítia Pyramids - Piramisok Sumerian clay tablet - Sumér agyagtábla Sumerians - Sumérok Assyria - Asszíria Ancient Egypt - Ókori Egyiptom Egyptian hieroglyphs - Egyiptomi hieroglifa Scythian treasure - Szkíta kincsek Sarmatian - Szarmata

Babylon

Miért rombolta le II. Nabukodonozor Askelónt?

Alexander Fantalkin, BBC History, Győrffy Iván

II. Nabú-kudurri-uszur, az Újbabiloni Birodalom uralkodója időszámításunk előtt 604-ben földig rombolt egy filiszteus kikötővárost. Egy nemrég publikált tanulmány a régészeti leletekből következteti ki, mi volt az oka a kegyetlen tettnek.







Mesopotamia

Albrecht Socin

As early as 700 B.C. " the country of two rivers" is mentioned on the Egyptian monuments under the name Naharina, but no such designation appears in the cuneiform increptions (though the territory formed part of the Assyrian as it afterwards did of the Persian empire). The most settled period in the history of Mesopotamia was probably under Persian-Greek rule. Xenophon allplies the name Syria to the extremely fertile district which he traversed after having crossed the Euphrates at Thapsacus. The country beyond the Araxes (Chaboras?) he calls Arabia, -- a desert region in which his army had to suffer great hardships until it reached the "gates of Arabia." Even in later times Mesopotamia was included under the name Asayrin, or was reckoned part of Babylonia.

The World’s Oldest Museum

Alasdair Wilkins

In 1925, archaeologist Leonard Woolley discovered a curious collection of artifacts while excavating a Babylonian palace. They were from many different times and places, and yet they were neatly organized and even labeled. Woolley had discovered the world's first museum.

Religions of the Ancient World

George Rawlinson

The religion of the ancient Egyptians, Assyrians and Babylonians, Iranians, Sanskritic Indians, Phoenicians and Carthaginians, Etruscans, Greeks, and Romans. Polytheism existed in three forms: 1, Synthetic; 2, Analytic; 3, Mixed - Egyptian polytheism of the last named kind - Early classification of the gods - The principal divinities - Ammon - Khem - Kneph - Phthah - Ra - Osiris - Neith or Net - Worship of the sun and moon...

Babylonian Mathematics

G. Donald Allen

Our first knowledge of mankind's use of mathematics comes from the Egyptians and Babylonians. Both civilizations developed mathematics that was similar in scope but different in particulars. There can be no denying the fact that the totality of their mathematics was profoundly elementary, but their astronomy of later times did achieve a level comparable to the Greeks.

Before Pythagoras: The Culture of Old Babylonian Mathematics

New York University ISAW

Thousands of cuneiform tablets dating to the Old Babylonian Period have come to light at various sites in ancient Mesopotamia. A significant number record mathematical tables, problems, and calculations. In the 1920s these tablets began to be systematically studied by Otto Neugebauer, who spent two decades transcribing and interpreting tablets housed in European and American museums. His labors, and those of his associates, rivals, and successors, have revealed a rich culture of mathematical practice and education that flourished more than a thousand years before the Greek sages Thales and Pythagoras with whom histories of mathematics used to begin.

Den store floden

Aratta

Geologiske og arkeologiske undersøkelser av egnene omkring Svartehavet har vist, at dette hav har hatt en noe omtumlet tilværelse i fortiden. I de første årtusen etter siste istids avslutning dekket det således et langt mindre areal, enn det som er tilfellet i dag. Svartehavet var den gang en isolert ferskvannssjø uten forbindelse med Middelhavet.

A Study Of Ancient Mesopotamian Foundations

Sally Secrest Dunham

This study focuses on a particular aspect of Ancient Mesopotamian architecture: the foundations of buildings and walls. The purpose is to delineate the kinds of foundations the Ancient Mesopotamians used and to try to discern the practical--and perhaps also the conceptual--reasons for building them. The method followed is to examine the archaeological evidence from the Neolothic (ca. seventh millennium) through the Early Dynastic period (Part I); and then to study the occurrences of nine Sumerian words in texts from the Early Dynastic through the Old Babylonian period (Part II). The Sumerian words are im-dub-ba, temen, ur, us/uru, ki-sa, dub-la, ki-gal and suhus.

Pantheon, Poetry And Religious Beliefs In The Neo-Babylonian Royal Inscription

Daniel E. Setness

In this dissertation I argue that the neo-Babylonian or Chaldean royal inscriptions serve as a collective repository of official religious attitudes. Sigmund Mowinckel, among others, views the pious characterizations of the neo-Babylonian kings as tendentious; that is to say, the neo-Babylonian kings, to his mind, are portrayed as having an exaggerated piety primarily for the sake of posterity.

Az idő szívverése 2. rész

Várkonyi Nándor

A régi idők csillagász-matematikusainak zsenialitása abban rejlik, hogy a kozmikus és a földi időkörök összes tagjának adataiból olyan számsort tudtak kiszűrni, mely megadja a közös nevezőket, s ezáltal egységes rendbe fűzi az égi és a földi idők periódusait – egyúttal azonos mértékű rendben - , egységbe foglalja őket a kozmikus térrel. Ez a számsor pedig a nevezett öt alapszám, minden nagyciklus-rendszer törzstényezője Kínától Yucatanig. Ők adják az egyetemes kulcsot.

Az idő szívverése 1. rész

Várkonyi Nándor

A világkortanok fontos szerepet játszottak az ókorok mitológiáiban, mintegy alapfalakul szolgáltak a vallásbölcseleti rendszerek felépítéséhez, s végeredményben azzá váltak, amit ma történelemszemléletnek nevezünk. A négyes tagolás általánossága feltűnő, s azt hihetnők, hogy a négy évszak pergése sugallta; némely népnél csakugyan így volt (például a germánoknál), de az évszakok váltakozása nem a folytonos, fokozatos hanyatlás eszméjét kínálja a kezdeti tökélytől a bukásig, hanem a kicsiny csírából nagyra növés és az érés, majd az elhullás megújuló ritmusát hirdeti. Hogy a világidő tagolása milyen eszméből született s mit nyújt – épp e kérdésekre akarunk most felelni.

Salamon a tudomány tükrében

Magnus Magnusson

A Bibliában minden Salamonról – bölcsességéről, gazdagságáról, feleségeiről, ágyasairól – szóló részlet erősen eltúlzottnak látszik. A régészet által szolgáltatott negatív bizonyítékok már eddig is jelentősen csökkentették a Salamon alkotásairól feljegyzett, szélsőségesen túlzó adatok értékét. Amikor tehát a Biblia szerint Salamon a Közép-Kelet egyik nagyhatalmát teremtette meg, egyetlen korabeli állam, még Fönícia sem figyelt fel rá. Ennél is meglepőbb azonban, hogy a környező országoknak az írásos hagyatékában sem találunk egyetlen adatot sem Dávidra, sem Salamonra vonatkozóan. A régészet szempontjából nézve, ez a birodalom valóban csak papíron létezett.

Babiloni pogány mítoszok, Kézai Képes Krónikája és a finnugor áltudomány

Götz László

Szeretnénk itt megragadni az alkalmat, hogy ezt a történelmi irodalmunkban immáron jó száz év óta kísértő, egyik szerzőtől a másikig kritikátlanul továbbgörgetett valótlanságot helyreigazítsuk. Röviden szólva: Kézai nem a Biblia szövegét használta fel dicső ősök keresésére - ahogy ezt szakirodalmunk Hunfalvy óta a legtöbb esetben előszeretettel hangsúlyozni szokta. Minden jel arra mutat, hogy itt dogmával állunk szemben, amely szent és sérthetetlen. Már maga a gondolat is tűrhetetlen volt, hogy a rablóhordáknak kinevezett magyaroknak még a 13. században is a babiloni időkre visszanyúló eredethagyományaik lehettek.

Selected Babylonian Business and Legal Documents of the Hammurabi Period

Arthur Ungnad

The study of the early Babylonian business and legal documents was inaugurated by the publication of about a hundred texts falling within this category by J. N. Stbassmaibr). These tablets had been discovered by W. E. LoFTUS at Tell-Sifir near the ancient town of Larsa (now Senkereh), in the southern part of Babylonia. They belonged to the reigns of Nur-Bamman Bim-Sin Hammurabi and Samsuiluna.

Jóslási és bajelhárító rítusok az ókori Mezopotámiában

Bácskay András

A mezopotámiai vallás témaköre rendkívül szerteágazó, az alábbiakban ennek csupán két részterületével, a jóslási és a bajelhárító rítusokkal foglalkozom. A téma tárgyalását a mezopotámiai vallás tanulmányozása kapcsán két tényező indokolja, egyrészt az a tény, mely szerint a vallásra vonatkozó mezopotámiai szöveghagyomány döntő többségét a fenti két tevékenységhez kapcsolódó források teszik ki, másfelől pedig mivel úgy vélem, hogy a két tudományos „szakterület", illetve a jóslási és a bajelhárító rítusok közötti összefüggésrendszer bemutatása révén a mezopotámiai vallásos gondolkodás legfontosabb összetevőire világíthatunk rá.

Babylonian seal in Egypt confirms contact

Lisa Chapman

Austrian archaeologists have found a Babylonian seal in Egypt that confirms contact between the Babylonians and the Hyksos during the second millennium B.C. She said a recently-discovered cuneiform tablet had led archaeologists to suspect there had been contact between the Babylonians and the Hyksos. Forstner-Müller added that Manfred Bietak had begun archaeological research on the period of Hyksos dominance at the remains of a Hyksos palace at Avaris in 1966.

The Global Economy of Music in the Ancient Near East

John Curtis Franklin

The present exhibit at the Bible Lands Museum bears eloquent witness to the rich body of archeological evidence for music and musicians in the ancient Near East. The inherent artistic value of such material, which includes not only representations but the remains of actual instruments, is often very high in its own right.

Myths of Babylonia and Assyria

Donald A. Mackenzie

This volume deals with the myths and legends of Babylonia and Assyria, and as these reflect the civilization in which they developed, a historical narrative has been provided, beginning with the early Sumerian Age and concluding with the periods of ...

Babylonians And Assyrians

A. H. Sayce

Semitic studies, both linguistically and archæologically, have advanced by rapid strides during the last two decades. Fresh light has fallen upon the literary, scientific, theological, mercantile, and other achievements of this great branch of the human family.

The Seven Great Monarchies: Babylon

George Rawlinson

The limits of Babylonia Proper, the tract in which the dominant power of the Fourth Monarchy had its abode, being almost identical with those which have been already described under the head of Chaldaea, will not require in this place to be treated afresh, at any length. It needs only to remind the reader that Babylonia Proper is that alluvial tract towards the mouth of the two great rivers of Western Asia—the Tigris and the Euphrates—which intervenes between the Arabian Desert on the one side, and the more eastern of the two streams on the other.

Histoire ancienne de l'orient

François Lenormant

Le fait dominant des cinquante dernières années, dans l'ordre scientifique, a été certainement la rénovation des études de l'histoire et surtout la conquête du vieux passé de l'Orient par la critique moderne, armée du flambeau qui fait pénétrer la lumière jusque dans les plus obscurs replis de ces annales pendant si longtemps ensevelies dans l'oubli.

The Babylonian Story of the Deluge

E. A. Wallis Budge

In the introduction to his paper on the Chaldean Account of the Deluge, which Smith read in December, 1872, and published in 1873, he stated that the Assyrian text which he had found on Ashur-bani-pal's tablets was copied from an archetype.

The Babylonian Legends of the Creation

E. A. Wallis Budge

A perusal of the texts of the Seven Tablets of Creation, which King was enabled, through the information contained in them, to arrange for the first time in their proper sequence, shows that the main object of the Legend was the glorification of the god...

An Early Technique of Aggadic Exegesis

Jeffrey H. Tigay

Nothing has been more characteristic of Jewish intellectual endeavor than the explication of Scripture. The typical expression of new ideas is not the systematic philosophical treatise but the Biblical commentary.

Ancient Astrology As A Common Root For Science And Pseudoscience

Enn Kasak

The early history of astrology is closely interrelated with the history of astronomy. Both may be studied separately, but the result may prove one-sided and one may fail to notice things of great consequence. The history of ancient astronomy must be treated jointly with the history of astrology, whose contribution to the history of science has often been underestimated.

History Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria

L.W. King, H.R. Hall

At no period have excavations been pursued with more energy and activity, both in Egypt and Western Asia, than at the present time, and every season's work obliges us to modify former theories, and extends our knowledge of periods of history which even ten years ago were unknown to the historian.

Civilisations: The Gardens of Babel

easeen

Mesopotamia is the oldest civilisation to have flourished at the confluence of two rivers: the Tigris and the Euphrates. The Mesopotamians included various peoples, the Sumerians, the Babylonians, the Akkadians, who coexisted and succeeded one another, mixing and inter-relating in a Near East with a wide range of racial facets.

The Seals of the King of Urkesh

Giorgio Buccellati, Marilyn Kelly-Buccellati

It is a singular distinction of the rulers of Urkesh that they employ a title found nowhere else in Near Eastern royal titulary: endan. We first learned about this royal title from the text of the inscriptions of Tish-Atal. We now have a second, presumably earlier, attestation, used by an individual named Tupkish.

Amazing Traces of a Babylonian Origin in Greek Mathematics

Jöran Friberg

In the present book, a sequel to the author's Unexpected Links Between Egyptian and Babylonian Mathematics, Singapore: World Scientific (2005), Greek and Babylonian mathematical texts will be allowed to speak for themselves.

Assur and Nimrod in Conflict

Craig White

In the book of Genesis, we are told that Noah had three sons and sixteen grandsons. His sons were Japheth, Shem and Ham. Given that sibling rivalries would have been just as common in that period as today, if not more so, it is very likely that such rivalry occurred between the three sons of Noah and between his grandsons.

The Art of the Akkad and Post-Akkad Periods in Western Iran

Edith Porada

The powerful Akkad dynasty, which put an end to the Sumerian city-states of Mesopotamia about 1270 B.C., extended its rule over western Iran also, especially over the south-west: Elam, with its capital city of Susa. Susa may have been a trading centre for some of the raw materials from Iran needed in Mesopotamia.

Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets

J.J. Finkelstein

The Old-Babylonian texts published here belong for the most part to the so-called 'Budge Collections'. On internal evidence, the provenance of most of them can be shown to be ancient Sippar. This volume is the work of Professor J. J. Finkelstein, who selected and copied the texts while working on the Trustees' planned Catalogue of Babylonian Tablets.

A manual of the ancient history of the East

François Lenormant

The one great fact of the last fifty years in the scientific world has certainly been the revival of historical studies, and especially that conquest which has been achieved of the ancient past of the East by modem criticism, which has been alile to throw light into the darkest recesses of annals long buried in obscurity.




Archívum / Archive

anatolia, archeology, assyria, avar, babylon, caucasus, chaldea, egypt, etruscan, finnugor, genetics, hun, indo-european, kelta, linguistics, magyar, media, mitanni, nyelveszet, parthia, persia, regeszet, scythia, subartu, sumer, szabir, szkita, urartu, video,